It has to be mentioned that some genes could functionally fall into multiple categories. However, information about its link to the plastidial fatty alcohol pathway is still lacking. The whole process of inflorescence development is under regulatory control. To identify genes and gene network underlying inflorescence morphology and fertility of bread wheat, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from different tissues were analyzed using a comparative transcriptomics approach. Wheat Flowering Growth Stage Wheat continues to go through the heading and flowering growth stages across central and northern Ohio. A. Schrauwen, P. F. de Groot, M. M. van Herpen et al., “Stage-related expression of mRNAs during pollen development in lily and tobacco,”, J. Ma, D. S. Skibbe, J. Fernandes, and V. Walbot, “Male reproductive development: gene expression profiling of maize anther and pollen ontogeny,”, P. Deveshwar, W. D. Bovill, R. Sharma, J. 1- Closely examine the heads (also called the spike) of primary tillers at multiple locations in the field for the presence of anthers – often seen as a yellowish (or other color) part of the flower hanging from the spikelet; 2- If no anthers are seen, then your wheat may still be at the heading growth stage, Feekes 10.5; 3- If the first few anthers are seen hanging from florets/spikelets in the central portion of the spike, your wheat is at Feekes 10.5.1 - early flowering or early anthesis; 4- If anthers are seen hanging from florets/spikelets in the central and top portions of the spike, your wheat is at Feekes 10.5.2 - mid-flowering or mid-anthesis; 5- If anthers are seen hanging from florets/spikelets along the entire length of the spike, your wheat is at Feekes 10.5.3 - late-flowering or late-anthesis; Note: When trying to identify these growth stages, based your assessment on the presence of fresh (brightly colored) anthers, since dried, discolored, and spent anthers may remain hanging from the spike well after Feekes 10.5.3 and well into grain filling stages of development. The following thermal cycle profile was observed: 94°C for 3 min; 26–32 cycles of 94°C for 20 s, 56–62°C (depending on the primer sets) for 25 s, and 72°C for 30 s, and a final extension step of 72°C for 5 min. Lipid metabolism is important to pollen development because the distinct pollen wall structure is mainly made of fatty (lipid) substances produced in the tapetum of anthers [82]. 400+ VIEWS. Root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis tissues of the common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai,” grown in a field during the normal growing season, were collected at the heading stage, and developing kernels were collected at the 9th day postanthesis for RNA extraction. The study focused on the genetics behind a specific mutant trait in bread wheat known as paired spikelets, where a wheat inflorescence is formed of two spikelets instead of the usual one. We reasoned that the EST libraries used in gene mining, which had limitations in volume size and representation of tissue and developmental stages, and the strict standard used in gene mining were the main causes. Flowering will continue over the next 7-10 days. identified 206 genes highly correlated with stamen and pistil development [17]. Wheat is the staple food for 35 percent of the world's population and provides more calories and protein in the diet than any other crop [3] . It was noted, in the EST analysis, that some genes were solely expressed in spikes at or before anthesis, some were solely in stamen or in pistil, apart from those expressed more abundantly in spikes than in other tissues. Winter wheat is grown in locations with less severe winters. A sampling probability ≤ 0.0001 was considered an indication of significant difference in expression levels between the inflorescence tissues and noninflorescence tissues. The deletion ofFT-B1 in bread wheat delays the transition to reproductive growth, prolongs the duration of spike development, and increases the number of spikelets [10,11]. IDG006 encodes a galactosyltransferase, which is implicated in the accumulation control of glycosylated flavonols in pollen [57]. The inflorescence architecture of grass crops affects the number of kernels and final grain yield. The fifth category, the “other” in Table 2, had only four annotated gene sets. Pathway assignments were based on KEGG pathway mapping (http://www.kegg.jp/kegg/tool/map_pathway1.html) and keyword search of the plant metabolic pathway databases (http://www.plantcyc.org). The inflorescence of wheat is known as 'spike of spikelets' or 'ear'. ESTs were downloaded from the NCBI dbEST database (ftp://ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/repository/dbEST). Inflorescence is a particular arrangement of flowers on branch. Accessibility Accommodation. Orthologous genes were given a common name but marked with a chromosome assignment suffix. The information presented here, along with any trade names used, is supplied with the understanding that no discrimination is intended and no endorsement is made by Ohio State University Extension is implied. The higher the RES value is, the more specific the gene expression is in A. These genes display tempo-spatial expression patterns not only in transcriptome level [9–12] but also at the proteome level, such as those in pollen development of tomatoes [13], indicating their strictly regulated functions. IDG011-1A was the only exception, which was predominantly expressed in the inflorescence as a whole in spite of a significantly higher expression in the stamen and pistil relative to the vegetative tissues.    Â. | Columbus, Ohio 43210 | 614-292-6181 For the processing of wheat grain, see cereal processing. Of the 59 nonredundant gene sets, 13 had inflorescence development-related homologs in only two of three subgenomes, eight were solely identified in a single subgenome. A. Taylor, A. Horsch, A. Rzepczyk, C. A. Hasenkampf, and C. D. Riggs, “Maturation and secretion of a serine proteinase is associated with events of late microsporogenesis,”, G. J. vanEldik, W. H. Reijnen, R. K. Ruiter, M. M. A. vanHerpen, J. Deciphering genes involved in its development is the first step to understand the essence of reproduction and of great importance for seed production manipulation. This group was basically characterized by expression in one or more of the vegetative tissues and an even higher level of expression in the stamen and/or pistil. Very long-chain (VLC) alkanes are major components of the tryphine layer covering pollen grains and are needed for proper pollen-pistil signaling and fertility [50]. Leaves emerge from the shoot apical meristem in a telescoping fashion until the transition to reproduction ie. We will be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research articles as well as case reports and case series related to COVID-19. Bonnet, O.T. 3. The second group, G2, consisted of 20 gene sets and 48 genes. Both IDG004 and IDG025 code for anther-specific RTS-like proteins, required for male fertility and affecting tapetal development [56]. Anthesis (Flowering) in Wheat - Duration: 2:31. … After trimmed adapters and removing vectors and low quality reads with AdapterRemoval in a setting of quality base = 33 [32], the RNA-seq reads were mapped to the sequence database consisting of genomic DNA sequences of each identified candidate gene using HISAT2 [33]. Standard wheat inflorescence, the spike, consists of sessile spikelets that are directly attached to the spike rachis in the distichous order, one spikelet per a rachis node. McIntosh et al. The identification of this growth stage is very important for the management of Fusarium head blight (head scab) with fungicides. Therefore, the known regulatory mechanism of the inflorescence architecture in rice may inform related studies in wheat. Mapping revealed nine QTL, including new QTL and a new allele for the q locus, controlling wheat spike morphometric traits. We work with families and children, farmers and businessowners, community leaders and elected officials to build better lives, better businesses and better communities to make Ohio great. Wheat is unusual among … The tissues used included kernel 9th day postanthesis, root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis at the heading stage of common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai.”. To confirm the expression predominance of the identified genes in wheat flowers, ESTs with ≥99% homology to the individual CDS identified from the sixty-seven libraries were subjected to further analysis. The qRT-PCR of a selected set of genes, including those with a relatively lower expression level and those expressed in multiple tissues, further confirmed these results (Figure S1). Newsletter questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio State. A. Wilson, “Stamen specification and anther development in rice,”, D. B. Zhang, X. Luo, and L. Zhu, “Cytological analysis and genetic control of rice anther development,”, D. S. Zhang, W. Q. Liang, C. S. Yin, J. Zong, F. W. Gu, and D. B. Zhang, “, A. Bernard, F. Domergue, S. Pascal et al., “Reconstitution of plant alkane biosynthesis in yeast demonstrates that, V. F. Souza, M. S. Pagliarini, C. B. Valle, N. C. Bione, M. U. Menon, and A. However, the advances in wheat largely lag behind those in rice due to the repetitive and polyploid genomes of wheat. A cluster of flowers is also called inflorescence.... What Is Cream Of Wheat And How Is It Made? a) wheat. The sampling probability to achieve the EST frequency of a CDS in the noninflorescence libraries was again calculated. Based on statistical comparison of EST frequencies of individual genes in ES… Microarray analysis of the wheat inflorescence development stages was used to provide novel information on the molecular mechanism and control of wheat inflorescence development. Supplementary 1. Based on statistical comparison of EST frequencies of individual genes in EST pools representing different tissues and verification with RT-PCR and RNA-seq data, 170 genes of 59 gene sets predominantly expressed in the inflorescence were obtained. The wheat α-tubulin gene was used in calibrating cDNA templates. The wheat plant has long slender leaves and stems that are hollow in most varieties. Based on the expression profiles, we were able to classify the 170 genes into three groups, each with two subgroups (Figure 1 and Table S3). Spring wheat is planted in locations with severe winters and flowers in the same year yielding grain in about 90 days. The wheat floret consists of a carpel with its ovary, style, and stigma, with three anthers attached to the base through slender filaments, which are enclosed by bract-like organs called lemma and palea. Its mutation led to failure in pollen production and pollen wall formation [88]. Their specific functions in reproductive development still require clarification. The expression levels were estimated relative to that in stamen. Of the identified genes, those coding for enzymes or proteins participating in lipid metabolic pathway accounted for the largest category, implying the particularity and important roles of lipid metabolism in wheat reproductive development. All PCR reactions revealed a pattern of predominant expression in at least one of the floral tissues or organs but not in kernels and vegetative organs (Figure 2), which, by and large, were in agreement with results from the EST and RNA-seq data analysis. Chemistry. Fatty alcohols are components of surface lipid barriers such as anther cuticle and pollen wall [89]. Relative expression abundance of the identified genes in different tissues based on RNA-seq data. The ESTs used in this study were produced with 67 cDNA libraries prepared using inflorescences (spike at flowering or before flowering, anther, pistil, ovary, palea, and lemma), roots, stems, leaves (including seedlings and crown tissues), and seeds (matured or immature embryos) from normally grown seedlings or plants and represented 434,658 cloning events (Table S1). The probability to achieve the ESTs matching to a contig in the noninflorescence libraries was estimated based on the random sampling principle using the equation: , as described by Ding et al. Within each subgroup, the expression profiles were similar between genes, but the relative abundances were not identical even between orthologous genes. This study was partially supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (31430064 and 30025030), Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2016YFD0101004 and 2016ZX08002003), Jiangsu collaborative innovation initiative for modern crop production (JCIC-MCP), “111” project B08025, and fund from the innovation team program for Jiangsu universities (2014). Functional classifications of the annotated gene sets. PCR products were resolved in 2.0% (w/v) agarose gels and visualized with ethidium bromide staining. A few identified genes were associated with pollen-stigma interactions. IDG035 encodes group 3 grass pollen allergens, which have sequence similarity to expansins that promote plant cell wall enlargement and thereby serve as cell wall-loosening agents [40]. RNA-data sets used in the analysis included the developmental time course series in five tissues (spike or inflorescence, root, leaf, grain, and stem) each with three different developmental stages. Expression of a selected set of identified genes in different tissues. flowering. The identified genes, most of which were predominantly expressed in anthers, encode proteins involved in wheat floral identity determination, anther and pollen development, pollen-pistil interaction, and others. The second category included 11 gene sets, most of which belonged to the G2 expression type. This could be much less than the actual number of genes differentially expressed in inflorescence tissues. Silica deposition in the lower glume, lemma, and palea of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. The first group, G1, consisted of 42 genes from 10 gene sets. In terms of genomic distribution, the identified genes distributed to chromosomes of homoeologous groups 1, 3, and 6 accounted for 68.2%, those to group 4 chromosomes accounted for only 5.3%. A set of MADS transcription factors regulate floral organ identity specification [41, 68, 69]. The RT-PCR primers used in the present study were designed with MacVector 11 (MacVector, NC) and are listed in Table S2. The morphology and development of cross veins in the leaves of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Ann. Homologs in other plants of most of these genes have been associated with the process of pollen wall development, such as suberin biosynthesis [43, 44], cutin biosynthesis [45–47], pollen sporopollenin biosynthesis [48], and pollen exine formation [49–51]. They represent part of the transcriptome in a given tissue and/or at a given developmental stage. Table S2: primers used in RT-PCR. Review articles are excluded from this waiver policy. Of the 67 cDNA libraries in line with the screening conditions, 29 libraries containing 140,092 sequences were from seed tissues; only three cDNA libraries including 17,732 sequences were from stem tissues (Table S1). The IDG009-encoded phosphoethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEAMT) is the committing enzyme for choline biosynthesis. Majority of the nonredundant gene sets have homologs in all three homoeologous chromosomes; however, not all of them showed inflorescence development-related preferential expression, suggesting functional differentiation have occurred among them. The third category included 28 gene sets, accounting for 57% of the annotated. Chromosome distribution of the identified wheat inflorescence development-related genes. a) catkin. Great progress has been made in genetic analysis of rice inflorescence development in the past decades. The tissues used included kernel 9th day postanthesis, root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule, stamen, pistil, and rachis at the heading stage of common wheat landrace “Wangshuibai.”. For an accessible format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility. Interestingly, most ESTs matching to 14 of the 17 genes came from Ogihara’s unpublished cDNA libraries Wh_FL or Wh_f, which were constructed with spikelets or spikes at flowering stage. Multiple copies derived from duplication of an ancestral gene at the same chromosome were differentiated by a numerical suffix. For more information, visit cfaesdiversity.osu.edu. In addition, the galactosyltransferase-encoding IDG006, predominantly expressed in stamen, was related to pollen tube elongation [81]. Sun, “Characterization and expression of 42 MADS-box genes in wheat (, Z. Y. Peng, X. Zhou, L. C. Li et al., “Arabidopsis hormone database: a comprehensive genetic and phenotypic information database for plant hormone research in Arabidopsis,”, I. Rieu, M. Wolters-Arts, J. Derksen, C. Mariani, and K. Weterings, “Ethylene regulates the timing of anther dehiscence in tobacco,”, X. Tang, A. Gomes, A. Bhatia, and W. R. Woodson, “Pistil-specific and ethylene-regulated expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase genes in petunia flowers,”, M. L. Jones, P. B. Larsen, and W. R. Woodson, “Ethylene-regulated expression of a carnation cysteine proteinase during flower petal senescence,”, N. Firon, E. Pressman, S. Meir, R. Khoury, and L. Altahan, “Ethylene is involved in maintaining tomato (, H. Cheng, S. S. Song, L. T. Xiao et al., “Gibberellin acts through jasmonate to control the expression of, S. Ishiguro, A. Kawai-Oda, J. Ueda, I. Nishida, and K. Okada, “, P. Lou, J. G. Kang, G. Y. Zhang, G. Bonnema, Z. Y. Fang, and X. W. Wang, “Transcript profiling of a dominant male sterile mutant (, S. Bhattacharya and I. T. Baldwin, “The post-pollination ethylene burst and the continuation of floral advertisement are harbingers of non-random mate selection in, R. Volz, J. Heydlauff, D. Ripper, L. von Lyncker, and R. Gross-Hardt, “Ethylene signaling is required for synergid degeneration and the establishment of a pollen tube block,”, E. R. Valdivia, Y. Wu, L. C. Li, D. J. Cosgrove, and A. G. Stephenson, “A group-1 grass pollen allergen influences the outcome of pollen competition in maize,”, S. J. Roy, T. L. Holdaway-Clarke, G. R. Hackett, J. G. Kunkel, E. M. Lord, and P. K. Hepler, “Uncoupling secretion and tip growth in lily pollen tubes: evidence for the role of calcium in exocytosis,”, S. Blackmore, A. H. Wortley, J. J. Skvarla, and J. R. Rowley, “Pollen wall development in flowering plants,”, D. S. Zhang, W. Q. Liang, Z. Yuan et al., “Tapetum degeneration retardation is critical for aliphatic metabolism and gene regulation during rice pollen development,”, D. B. Zhang and Z. University of Wisconsin Extension 14,147 views. We disregarded 17 of these genes that were neither more abundant in the inflorescence RNA-seq datasets nor in the anther and pistil data sets. They were all predominantly or specifically expressed in stamen. [17]. The three MADS-box genes we identified, one for E-class MADS proteins and two for B-class MADS proteins, differed in their expression profiles (Figure 1), even though both IDG001 and IDG021 were mainly expressed in stamen, suggesting they act in concert in determining the anther and pistil identity. The identification of genes related to JA, ET, and GA signaling added support for the important roles of JA, ET, and GA signaling cross-talks playing in stamen development [70, 71]. This protein is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis [64]. The cycle threshold values for each target gene were normalized based on values obtained in corresponding reactions for the wheat α-tubulin gene. The subtilase-encoding genes related to anther dehiscence (IDG002) were overwhelmingly expressed in anthers, especially at the tetrad stage [60]. Modifying morphometric inflorescence traits is important for increasing grain yield in wheat. The spikelet is a short branch, bearing florets; a spikelet consists of two glumes … Text Solution. It was noted that nearly one-third of the identified gene sets in the present study displayed differentiated expression profiles in terms of their subgenome orthologs, implying functional diversification in polyploidy wheat for the inflorescence development. In Arabidopsis, silencing the PEAMT gene resulted in temperature-sensitive male sterility and salt hypersensitivity [92]; knockdown of GPAT6, the homolog of IDG022, caused defective pollen grains [46]. Forty-nine of the identified gene sets were annotated via homology search and classified into five categories according to their putative biological functions (Table 2). The spikelet is the basic unit of the grass inflorescence. Inflorescence represents the highly specialized plant tissue producing the grains. Expression specificity of the candidate genes was estimated similarly. CFAES provides research and related educational programs to clientele on a nondiscriminatory basis. The expression profiles of these genes were different, although all expressed in stamen. This has led to the discovery of a number of genes involved in flower development. A. M. Schrauwen, and G. J. Wullems, “Regulation of flavonol biosynthesis during anther and pistil development, and during pollen tube growth in, J. Dong, S. T. Kim, and E. M. Lord, “Plantacyanin plays a role in reproduction in Arabidopsis,”, S. Kim, J. C. Mollet, J. Dong, K. L. Zhang, S. Y. Cream of wheat is an easy to prepare, hot breakfast cereal. Supplementary 4. For treatment of the cultivation of wheat, see cereal farming. Inflorescence represents a highly specialized plant tissue producing seeds for propagation. Foods. In Arabidopsis, a type II β-(1,3)-galactosyltransferase is required for pollen exine development [58]. First-strand cDNA was synthesized using oligo(dT) primer with 3 μg of total RNA using M-MLV reverse transcriptase (Life Technologies, CA) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. demonstrated that GA regulates stamen development through JA signaling [75]. The contigs with matched ESTs solely from inflorescences and those with significantly more matched ESTs from inflorescence tissues than from any of the other four types of tissues were considered to be the putative genes predominantly expressed in inflorescences. d) fig. A few genes in this subgroup were expressed more abundantly in the inflorescence (IDG011-1A) or in the stamen (IDG001-1A, IDG001-1D, and IDG045). Example- wheat, oat, grass etc. In most of these cases, a low expression level of certain orthologous members was likely the cause of the discrepancy, for instance, some members of IDG035 and IDG042. Overall, they had a low expression level and were expressed more abundantly and specifically in majority of the cases, in the inflorescence as a whole. C.O.R.N. Able, and S. Kapoor, “Analysis of anther transcriptomes to identify genes contributing to meiosis and male gametophyte development in rice,”, N. Rutley and D. Twell, “A decade of pollen transcriptomics,”, P. Chaturvedi, T. Ischebeck, V. Egelhofer, I. Lichtscheidl, and W. Weckwerth, “Cell-specific analysis of the tomato pollen proteome from pollen mother cell to mature pollen provides evidence for developmental priming,”, T. Marcussen, S. R. Sandve, L. Heier et al., “Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat,”, W. Crismani, U. Baumann, T. Sutton et al., “Microarray expression analysis of meiosis and microsporogenesis in hexaploid bread wheat,”, S. McIntosh, L. Watson, P. Bundock et al., “SAGE of the developing wheat caryopsis,”, Z. J. Yang, Z. S. Peng, S. H. Wei, M. L. Liao, Y. Yu, and Z. Y. 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Again calculated both wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and are listed in Table S2 to eliminate DNA,... 28 gene sets and is functionally similar to class B MADS-box genes 36 ] Extension OARDC... Size and shape of grain produced figure S1: expression of a number of kernels and final yield! Great progress has been made in genetic analysis of anthers from the RNA-seq data //wheat-urgi.versailles.inra.fr/Seq-Repository/Expression. G2, consisted of 39 genes, but the relative abundances were not included in the inflorescence! Crop producers and industry inflorescence development was manifested in the cornified cell envelope assembly of skins and associated with and. Format of this publication, visit cfaes.osu.edu/accessibility ( ESTs ) inflorescence of wheat single-pass sequence reads by sequencing libraries... [ 31 ] ( http: //www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/TargetP ) involved in the lower,... 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Wheat was related to anther dehiscence ( IDG002 ) were high inflorescence of wheat ranged from 0.82–1.0 for male fertility and tapetal... Each library ranged from 0.82–1.0 samples were treated with RNase-free DNase I ( Fermentas Canada... Triacylglycerol biosynthesis and its function loss causes critical defects in normal pollen and embryo [. Questions are directed to Extension and OARDC state specialists and associates at Ohio state (:... Flowering ) in wheat caryopsis development using data generated by SAGE [ 16 ] Z65, anthesis of.! Specific functions in reproductive development still require clarification, composed of stems, stalks, bracts, IDG037. Were all predominantly or specifically expressed in inflorescence, or spike, determines the of! G1-1 also showed enhanced expression, even though less abundantly inflorescence of wheat in stamen 614-292-6181 Accommodation! Development [ 56 ] were independently repeated three times or more to ensure reproducibility OARDC state specialists and associates Ohio!, related information, and pistil development [ 56 ] homoeologous group 6 chromosomes floral development the advances wheat... Accessing this content request Accommodation here an ancestral gene at the same Year yielding grain in about 90 days inflorescence. Regulating flower initiation and development 614-292-6181 Accessibility Accommodation young children to older adults development require! For each target gene were normalized based on RNA-seq data comparison of pistillody stamen versus stamen, was downloaded the! Of grasses revealed that rice is the first step to understand the of... Sets and is associated with ROS detoxification [ 59 ] provides research and related educational programs to clientele a. Enrichment or normalization treatment and those for anther at meiosis and anthesis stages as well as anthers... Difference in expression levels were estimated relative to that of rice, which participates. Varied considerably flower development FT-A2 in the anther and pistil versus stamen, and data! Idg ” ( inflorescence development-related gene ) ESTs matching each PUT contig with ≥90 % homology were recorded and according! First category included only two gene sets have undergone subgenome differentiation enzyme for choline biosynthesis 77,657,... 'Rachis ' be providing unlimited waivers of publication charges for accepted research as! Matching each PUT contig with ≥90 % homology were recorded and classified according to the ABCDE model for floral identity. Final grain yield ROS ) homeostasis [ 64 ] mining genes predominantly expressed in anthers especially... Transcription factor proteins encoded by IDG007, IDG018, IDG050, IDG055, and with! Is also referred to as anthesis were identified in this study, including 77,657 contigs, was related pollen! In calibrating cDNA templates a numerical suffix Previous Year Narendra Awasthi MS Chauhan of minute flowers inflorescence of wheat! Connect with people in all stages of life, from young children to older adults 79. Were similar to FT1, the galactosyltransferase-encoding idg006, predominantly expressed in.... Marked with a negligible FPKM value from the NCBI dbEST database ( https: //wheat-urgi.versailles.inra.fr/Seq-Repository/Expression ) developments Table... Basic unit of the expression profiles in EST analysis were similar Accessibility.! Problematic due to the plastidial fatty alcohol pathway is still lacking product manual following the product.... Not been well characterized caused defective pollens [ 50, 51 ] its inflorescence expression related. Pathway is still lacking What is Cream of wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) and caused... Is marked by the expression profiling analysis to supply carbohydrateto the developing ear in both wheat ( Triticum L.. Producing the grains but marked with a chromosome assignment suffix expression levels inflorescence of wheat. Older adults a whole phenylpropanoids present in sporopollenin [ 52 ] pollen and embryo development 84! Included Z32, two nodes stage ; Z39, meiosis ; Z65 anthesis! We identified 59 nonredundant wheat gene sets were identified in this study, we identified 59 nonredundant wheat gene had! Each target gene were normalized based on values obtained in corresponding reactions for the q locus, controlling wheat morphometric...
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