New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869. Up until the 20th century authors tended to follow Pollio's thinking, attributing mistakes not to Caesar but to the process, such as errors in translation and transcription throughout time. The number in the right column indicates the … Henige notes that Caesar's matter of fact tone and easy to read writing made it all the easier to accept his outlandish claims. Created by. 1, encadrement à bianchi girari dans les marges supérieure et intérieure ; dans la marge inférieure, armes d'Alphonse, duc de Calabre, dans une guirlande couronnée soutenue par deux putti ailés. l domitio ap claudio consulibus discedens ab hibernis caesar in italiam ut quotannis facere consuerat legatis imperat quos legionibus praefecerat uti quam plurimas possent hieme naues aedificandas ueteresque reficiendas curarent earum modum formamque ... Caesar De Bello Gallico 5 1 Hi there. "[12] In the 36th book of the Asterix series, Asterix and the Missing Scroll, a fictitious and supposedly censored chapter from Caesar's Commentaries on the Gallic War forms the basis for the story. in Gaul, Germany, and Britain.And, as an aid to his readers, he provides expository information for those who are unfamiliar with the far-off lands and people encountered during his forays. [17], Commentary on Gallic wars by Julius Caesar, Prior to its demobilization and subsequent remobilization by, "He came, he saw, we counted : the historiography and demography of Caesar's gallic numbers", Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Commentarii_de_Bello_Gallico&oldid=991904032, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopedia Americana with a Wikisource reference, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2020, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 12:34. Fuuml;r den Latein- und Geschichtsunterricht. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (30) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. The work has been a mainstay in Latin instruction because of its simple, direct prose. Two examples of this is when Caesar demands the children of chieftains (2.5) and accepted the two sons of King Galba (2.13). The oldest manuscript in this class is MS Paris lat. It overwhelmingly reads as Cicero's tribute to Caesar. Caesar De Bello Gallico 1 3. [7] The idea of the practice was that important people from each side were given to ensure that both sides kept their word; a type of contract. However, scholars are still uncertain about what they would offer. Breindal also considers the main point of the work to be as a propaganda piece to protect Caesars reputation in the vicious politics of Rome. as well as the Belgians (Towle & Jenks); ‘also,’ always follows the emphatic word, ‘because they (just as … schoolhardstudyhard. Also in chapter 13, he mentions that the Druids studied "the stars and their movements, the size of the cosmos and the earth, the nature of the world, and the powers of immortal deities," signifying to the Roman people that the druids were also versed in astrology, cosmology, and theology. (6) Cette rencontre ne lui causa pas moins de plaisir que la victoire même ; … Book 5 has sections on the customs of the British and Book 6 has material on the Germans. In chapter 13, he claims that they select a single leader who ruled until his death, and a successor would be chosen by a vote or through violence. Henige finds it oddly convenient that exactly one quarter were combatants, suggesting that the numbers were more likely ginned up by Caesar than outright counted by census. These being set on fire, those within are encompassed by the flames" (DBG 6.16). Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: Commentarii De Bello Gallico (latin för "Kommentarer om det galliska kriget") är de sju böcker som den romerske krigsherren Julius Caesar författade om sin verksamhet under gallerkriget år 58 f.Kr. The Latin title, Commentaries on the Gallic War, is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated to About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul, and The Gallic War. » noun. sum, esse, fui, futurus be; exist sein, existieren être ; exister essere, esistere ser; existir. (5) C. Valérius Procillus était entraîné, chargé d'une triple chaîne, par ses gardiens fugitifs. Bohn. Another major action taken by Diviciacus was his imploring of Caesar to take action against the Germans and their leader, Ariovistus. commentariorum libri vii de bello gallico cum a. hirti supplemento Still, she does believe that Caesar had an overwhelming hand in creating the work, but believes much of the grammar and clarity of the work to be the result of the scribe or scribes involved. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: Today, Vercingetorix is seen in the same light as others who opposed Roman conquest; he is now considered a national hero in France and a model patriot. [4] For example, Caesar writes that robberies committed outside of the state are legalized in hopes of teaching young people discipline and caution, an idea nearly offensive to the judicial practices of the Romans (ea iuventutis exercendae ac desidiae minuendae causa fieri praedicant, 6.23). Where the Romans did take prisoners of war, hostages could also be given or exchanged in times of peace. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. In book two, the Belgae were exchanging hostages to create an alliance against Rome (2.1) and the Remi offered Caesar hostages in their surrender (2.3, 2.5). McDevitte and W.S. Since Caesar is one of the characters in the Astérix and Obélix albums, René Goscinny included gags for French schoolchildren who had the Commentarii as a textbook, even though Latin was then disappearing from French schools. Nicht übersetzt. The Germans have no neighbors, because they have driven everyone out from their surrounding territory (civitatibus maxima laus est quam latissime circum se vastatis finibus solitudines habere, 6.23). [15], Ultimately, Henige sees the Commentarii as a very clever piece of propaganda written by Caesar, built to make Caesar appear far grander than he was. New revisions of the Helvetian Campaign will appear throughout the Fall of 2017. Spell. Kruimelpad: Home » Latijn » Schrijvers » Caesar » De Bello Gallico » De indeling van Gallië ( B. Gal. They were bitter rivals who both sought to achieve the greatest honors "and every year used to contend for promotion with the utmost animosity" [omnibusque annis de locis summis simultatibus contendebant] (DBG 5.44). Book 1 and Book 6 detail the importance of Diviciacus, a leader of the Haedui (Aedui), which lies mainly in the friendly relationship between Caesar and Diviciacus quod ex aliis ei maximam fidem habebat ("the one person in whom Caesar had absolute confidence") (I, 41). Caesar - De Bello Gallico 1.6. Caesar de sese persona tertia, rarissime prima, uti solet. During World War I the French composer Vincent d'Indy wrote his Third Symphony, which bears the title De Bello Gallico. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. But Henige still believes this number inaccurate. A Collection of Articles About Julius Caesar, De Bello Gallico Passages for the AP Latin Caesar Liber I. [16] Book eight was written after Caesar's death in 44 BC by consul Aulus Hirtius; Hirtius must have written the book before his death in civil war in 43 BC. Notable chapters describe Gaulish custom (VI, 13), their religion (VI, 17), and a comparison between Gauls and Germanic peoples (VI, 24). The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, which remains the most important historical source regarding the conflict. There is debate as to whether it is dry. By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. Spell. This work, however, is far too long to be covered entirely in one course, and it has always been the task of the professor to determine which books and chapters of the Gallic Wars were to be surveyed. Today the term hostage has a different connotation than it did for the Ancient Romans, which is shown in the examples above. Caesar concludes in chapters 25–28 by describing the Germans living in the almost-mythological Hercynian forest full of oxen with horns in the middle of their foreheads, elks without joints or ligatures, and uri who kill every man they come across. 20th century authors guessed as low as 4 million, with Henige giving a modern range of 4-48 million between authors. But after World War II historians began to question if Caesar's claims stood up. [14], The editio princeps was published by Giovanni Andrea Bussi at Rome in 1469. This appears in Book VII, chapters 1–13. It contains many details and employs many stylistic devices to promote Caesar's political interests.[10]. Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum, alterum equitum. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Caesar’s Helvetian Campaign / Gallic War 1. Caius Iulius Caesar “De Bello Gallico” Antología con vocabularios Colección de textos breves para la traducción, acompañados de un vocabulario completo para Latín II, y textos para preparar la prueba de la Selectividad FRANCISCO EXPÓSITO SÁNCHEZ “El Valle” de Jaén Gravity. l_zhao. German women reportedly wear small cloaks of deer hides and bathe in the river naked with their fellow men, yet their culture celebrates men who abstain from sex for as long as possible (6.21). Spell. Materialien zur Lektüre von Caesar, De bello Gallico, Buch I, 1-30 (Helvetier-Feldzug) Lern-Vokabeln zu der Lektüre von Caesar, De bello Gallico, Buch I, 1-30 STUDY. Caesar - De bello Gallico 4,20-4,38: Caesars erster Britannienfeldzug. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. Lot was one of the first modern authors who directly questioned the validity of Caesar's numbers, finding a fighting force of 430,000 to have been unbelievable for the time. Projektumfang und Abgrenzung zu anderen Wikibooks: Das Projekt umfasst das gesamte Werk "De Bello Gallico" von Gaius Iulius Caesar, das nach und nach übersetzt und … Ci sono otto libri ve li riporto in italiano e in latino cosi lo trovate subito. Cäsar - Bellum Gallicum - Buch 1 - Kapitel 1 - Übersetzung Cäsar - Bellum Gallicum - Buch 1 - Kapitel 2 - Übersetzung Cäsar - Bellum Gallicum - Buch 1 - Kapitel 3 - Übersetzung Even in 1908, Camille Jullian wrote a comprehensive history of Gaul and took Caesar's account as unerring. The Commentaries were an effort by Caesar to directly communicate with the plebeians – thereby circumventing the usual channels of communication that passed through the Senate – to propagandize his activities as efforts to increase the glory and influence of Rome. Since his forces had already been humiliated and defeated in previous engagements, he needed to report a success story to Rome that would lift the spirits of the people. Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. [6] He relates this particular account to illustrate that, despite the losses against Ambiorix and his army, Rome is still able to trust in the valor of its soldiers. But even Henige suggests that it is possible the numbers have not always been accurately written down, and that the earliest surviving manuscripts are only from the ninth to twelfth centuries. The text of the de Bello Gallico presents some difficulties, but it is in no sense, like the text of the de Bello Civili, a crux criticorum. By Julius Caesar Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn. In the 18th century, authors extrapolated from the text populations of 40–200 million. Add note. C. Julius Caesar, De bello Gallico T. Rice Holmes, Ed. Well not entirely! Write. [15], Not all contemporaries of Caesar believed the account to have been accurate. opera omnia werk Caesar Latijn vertaling ... qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. They return to the camp showered in praise and honors by their fellow soldiers. 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Caesar highlights the sacrificial practices of the Druids containing innocent people and the large sacrificial ceremony where hundreds of people were burnt alive at one time to protect the whole from famine, plague, and war (DBG 6.16). Textauswahl und verschiedene Zugaben All these differ from each other in language, customs and laws. Their greatest political power resides in the wartime magistrates, who have power over life and death (vitae necisque habeant potestatem, 6.23). Book 1. He depicts the Germans as primitive hunter gatherers with diets mostly consisting of meat and dairy products who only celebrate earthly gods such as the sun, fire, and the moon (6.21–22). Although most contemporaries and subsequent historians considered the account truthful, 20th century historians have questioned the outlandish claims made in the work. Such prosecution would not only see Caesar stripped of his wealth and citizenship, but also negate all of the laws he enacted during his term as Consul and his dispositions as pro-consul of Gaul. Caesar sought to portray his fight as a justified defense against the barbarity of the Gauls (which was important, as Caesar had actually been the aggressor contrary to his claims). In Brutus, Cicero says that Caesar's De bello Gallico is the best history ever written. STUDY. This practice of exchanging hostages continues to be used throughout Caesar's campaigns in diplomacy and foreign policy. [14], Caesar's account was largely taken as truthful and accurate until the 20th century. Flashcards. 26Aug17) Write. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. Among these, Diviciacus and Vercingetorix are notable for their contributions to the Gauls during war. Conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. In addition to not knowing for sure what Caesar would have considered its proper title, The Gallic Wars is misleading. In it Caesar describes the battles and intrigues that took place in the nine years he spent fighting the Celtic and Germanic peoples in Gaul that opposed Roman conquest. 3864, written at Corbie in the last quarter of the ninth century. Match. Caesar, along with other Roman authors, assert that the Druids would offer human sacrifices on numerous occasions for relief from disease and famine or for a successful war campaign. His rebus adducti et auctoritate Orgetorigis permoti constituerunt ea quae ad. His fear of Ariovistus and the general outcry from the Gallic people led Caesar to launch a campaign against the Germans, even though they had been considered friends of the Republic. Created by. De Bello Gallico Libri Septem. STUDY. Od. Caesar uses this anecdote to illustrate the courage and bravery of his soldiers. Henige finds this entire story impossible, as did Ferdinand Lot, writing in 1947. What Role Did Gaul Play in Ancient History? Learn. There is also an 8th book, written by Aulus Hirtius. In De Bello Gallico 6.21–28, Julius Caesar provides his audience with a picture of Germanic lifestyle and culture. The first (α) encompasses manuscripts containing only De Bello Gallico and characterized by colophons with allusions to late antique correctores. It is traditionally the first authentic text assigned to students of Latin, as Xenophon's Anabasis is for students of Ancient Greek; they are both autobiographical tales of military adventure told in the third person. Caesar - De bello Gallico 4,20-4,38: Caesars erster Britannienfeldzug. Since the work of Karl Nipperdey in 1847, the existing manuscripts have been divided into two classes. Commentāriī dē Bellō Gallicō (English: Commentaries on the Gallic War), also Bellum Gallicum (English: Gallic War), is Julius Caesar's firsthand account of the Gallic Wars, written as a third-person narrative. Caesar: De Bello Gallico – Kapitel 54 – Übersetzung HINWEIS : Alle Übersetzungen, die auf Lateinheft.de veröffentlicht wurden dürfen nicht als die eigenen ausgeben werden. The camp being fortified, he left there two legions and a portion of the auxiliaries; and led back the other four legions into the larger camp. Dezen verschillen onderling in taal, instellingen en wetten. The corpus of Caesar’s works comprises eight books of the Gallic War, three books of the Civil War, and three individual war narratives by unknown authors who were probably officers in Caesar’s army and thus participated in the events and provide a different perspective on Caesar the general and leader. Caesar referred to his writing as res gestae 'deeds/things done' and commentarii 'commentaries,' suggesting historical events. In origine, era probabilmente intitolato C. Iulii Caesaris commentarii rerum gestarum, mentre il titolo con cui è oggi noto è un'aggiunta successiva, finalizzata a distinguere questi resoconti da quelli degli eventi successivi. The second (β) encompasses manuscripts containing all of the related works—not only De Bello Gallico, but De Bello Civili, De Bello Alexandrino, De Bello Africo, and De Bello Hispaniensi, always in that order. Gravity. Match. B. Greenough, Benjamin L. D'Ooge, M. Grant Daniell, Commentary on Caesar's Gallic War, AG BG 3.23; Cross-references to this page (11): Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, SYNTAX OF THE VERB; Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and Colleges, CONSTRUCTION OF CASES The De Bello Gallico of Julius Caesar has been a staple of second-year Latin programmes for many centuries. Diviciacus had, in tears, begged Caesar to spare the life of his brother, and Caesar saw an opportunity to not only fix his major problem with Dumnorix, but also to strengthen the relationship between Rome and one of its small allies. Their garrison had come under siege during a rebellion by the tribes of the Belgae led by Ambiorix. J. Lucius Vorenus and Titus Pullo were two centurions in the garrison of Quintus Tullius Cicero, brother of Marcus Tullius Cicero, and are mentioned in Book 5.44 of De Bello Gallico. 424–528. This site contains Latin text, notes, vocabulary, and media for selections from The Gallic War by Julius Caesar, intended for readers of Latin.. A note on the text. PLAY. I.--. However, the distinguishing characteristic of the Germans for Caesar, as described in chapters 23 and 24, is their warring nature, which they believe is a sign of true valour (hoc proprium virtutis existimant, 6.23). PLAY. For De Bello Gallico, the readings of α are considered better than β. McDevitte and W.S. Discover surprising insights and little-known facts about politics, literature, science, and the marvels of the natural world. The upside is, as Vincent J. Cleary argues in Caesar's "Commentarii": Writings in Search of a Genre, that Caesar's prose is free of grammatical error, Grecisms, and pedantry, and rarely metaphorical. The Latin text given here generally conforms with the Oxford Classical Text of 1900 by Renatus DuPontet, except for the following:. This series of annual war commentaries is referred to by various names but is commonly called De bello Gallico in Latin, or The Gallic Wars in English. Both Anabasis and the Gallic War commentaries were written in the third person singular, relating historical events, with the intention of sounding objective, and in simple, clear language, so that the Anabasis is often the first continuous prose beginning Greek students face. C. IVLI CAESARIS COMMENTARIORVM DE BELLO GALLICO LIBER PRIMVS. [citation needed]. Concurrently, "Gaul" was also used in common parlance as a synonym for "uncouth" or "unsophisticated" as Romans saw Celtic peoples as uncivilized compared with themselves. 1 Grammatical Appendix from Caesar: Selections fr om his Commentarii De Bello Gallico Introduction Th is Appendix is a revision of the one that bears the same title in Arthur Tappan Walker’s Caesar’s Gallic War with Introduction, Notes, Vocabulary, and Grammatical Appendix (Chicago and New York: Scott Foresman and Company, 1907), pp. Other articles where The Gallic Wars is discussed: Celtic religion: The Celtic gods: … is the passage in Caesar’s Commentarii de bello Gallico (52–51 bc; The Gallic War) in which he names five of them together with their functions. Caesar spent a great amount of time in Gaul and his book is one of the best preserved accounts of the Druids from an author who was in Gaul. Flashcards. Thus, Caesar turns a military blunder into a positive propaganda story. Chapter 14 addresses the education of the Druids and the high social standing that comes with their position. 1.1) Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. 5 Gallōs ab Aquītānīs Garumna fl ūmen, ā Belgīs Matrona et His brother, Dumnorix had committed several acts against the Romans because he wanted to become king quod eorum adventu potentia eius deminuta et Diviciacus frater in antiquum locum gratiae atque honoris sit restitutus and summam in spem per Helvetios regni obtinendi venire (I, 41); thus Caesar was able to make his alliance with Diviciacus even stronger by sparing Dumnorix from punishment while also forcing Diviciacus to control his own brother. To emphasize the coherence of The oldest manuscript in this class is MS. Amsterdam 73, written at Fleury Abbey in the later ninth century. Gaul Gaule Gallia Galia. 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She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history and Latin guessed in the quarter! Has been caesar de bello gallico mainstay in Latin instruction because of its simple, direct prose a connotation! The Commentarii De Bello Gallico 1,30-1,33: die Veranlassung zum Krieg gegen Ariovist Fuuml. Caesar » De Bello Gallico Gallico is usually the first piece of,. Boni intended to rewrite the text populations of 40–200 million the order and of! Even in 1908, Camille Jullian wrote a comprehensive history of his authority his.
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